05 October 2008

* U.S. Radar in Israel: What's it For, Really?

A few weeks back, the U.S. Army's European Command set up an early-warning radar system in Israel. It's ostensible purpose is to boost defenses against Iranian missiles. But Entropic Memes wonders whether there isn't something more to this radar than meets the eye.

The AN/TPY-2 radar is one of the "key component[s]" in the "American Forward-Based Radar global missile-defense system," Entropic Memes notes. And it has a huge range -- about 2000 kilometers, by some estimates.

Placed in Israel, the radar could watch over most of Iran. But it also covers a broad swath of the Middle East and the Caucasus, too. Plus, EM observes, "you can’t help but wonder why the system wasn’t installed in Iraq, or better yet Afghanistan." That "would ensure full coverage of Iran - and, in the case of Afghanistan, provide coverage of Pakistan as well."

What's more, the system in Israel is quite similar to the radar that the U.S. wanted so badly to install in the Czech Republic earlier this year, as part of its larger missile defense shield. Could this be another attempt, to piece together that regional defense? Victoria Samson, with the Center for Defense Information, believes it might. "It was sold to the Israelis as something that could feed information into their system about incoming Iranian missiles," she writes. "But I would argue its primary purpose is to be part of the U.S. missile defense system in Europe."

CIA veteran Allen Thomson is "not convinced," however. Israel Negev desert "is marginal as a site to provide coverage of Iranian launches to the north, particularly if you factor in earth curvature and the altitude missiles launched from Iran would have to get to to break the radar's horizon. The Caucasus or even eastern Turkey would be much better," he tells DANGER ROOM.

Thomson adds, "That said, I agree that very careful (meaning quantitative) scrutiny should be given to this deployment to see if it makes sense in terms of its claimed purpose. Or in terms of other, unclaimed purposes."

UPDATE: Be careful about those radar range estimates, former Air Force officer Brian Weeden counsels. They vary quite a bit.

First, range is function of the power of the radar. Modern phased arrays are made of a number of smaller transmit/receive elements, often times hundreds or thousands depending on the size of the radar face and the width of the radar beam (a function of the frequency). The total power (and thus range) of the radar depends on how many of these elements you pack into the face. There's a huge difference in capability between a fully populated array and one that's only 10% populated, and it looks like MDA isn't going to have nearly the money or manufacturing capacity to fully populate the elements either the Israel or Czech radar (10 to 25% populated is more likely).

Second, effective tracking range of a radar is dependent on the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the object it is trying to track (which is partly dependent on the frequency of the radar). This makes sense - the more radar reflective an object is, the more energy it will reflect back to the receiver and thus less power is needed to track it. So whenever someone gives you the "effective range" of a radar, you always need to ask "against what size target?" And here once again MDA isn't really being completely honest. The stated ranges for the Israel and Czech (and Sea Based X-band for that matter) are against 1 meter RCS targets. Unfortunately, their primary target - nuclear warheads in flight - are much smaller than that in the frequency the are using, typically about 0.1 meter RCS.

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Lebanon Time-Line

Introducing Lebanon

Coolly combining the ancient with the ultramodern, Lebanon is one of the most captivating countries in the Middle East. From the Phoenician findings of Tyre (Sour) and Roman Baalbek's tremendous temple to Beirut's BO18 and Bernard Khoury's modern movement, the span of Lebanon's history leaves many visitors spinning. Tripoli (Trablous) is considered to have the best souk in the country and is famous for its Mamluk architecture. It's well equipped with a taste of modernity as well; Jounieh, formerly a sleepy fishing village, is a town alive with nightclubs and glitz on summer weekends.

With all of the Middle East's best bits - warm and welcoming people, mind-blowing history and considerable culture, Lebanon is also the antithesis of many people's imaginings of the Middle East: mostly mountainous with skiing to boot, it's also laid-back, liberal and fun. While Beirut is fast becoming the region's party place, Lebanon is working hard to recapture its crown as the 'Paris of the Orient'.

The rejuvenation of the Beirut Central District is one of the largest, most ambitious urban redevelopment projects ever undertaken. Travellers will find the excitement surrounding this and other developments and designs palpable - and very infectious.

Finally, Lebanon's cuisine is considered the richest of the region. From hummus to hommard (lobster), you'll dine like a king. With legendary sights, hospitality, food and nightlife, what more could a traveller want?

Introducing Beirut

What Beirut is depends entirely on where you are. If you’re gazing at the beautifully reconstructed colonial relics and mosques of central Beirut’s Downtown, the city is a triumph of rejuvenation over disaster.

If you’re in the young, vibrant neighbourhoods of Gemmayzeh or Achrafiye, Beirut is about living for the moment: partying, eating and drinking as if there’s no tomorrow. If you’re standing in the shadow of buildings still peppered with bullet holes, or walking the Green Line with an elderly resident, it’s a city of bitter memories and a dark past. If you’re with Beirut’s Armenians, Beirut is about salvation; if you’re with its handful of Jews, it’s about hiding your true identity. Here you’ll find the freest gay scene in the Arab Middle East, yet homosexuality is still illegal. If you’re in one of Beirut’s southern refugee camps, Beirut is about sorrow and displacement; other southern districts are considered a base for paramilitary operations and south Beirut is home to infamous Hezbollah secretary general, Hassan Nasrallah. For some, it’s a city of fear; for others, freedom.

Throw in maniacal drivers, air pollution from old, smoking Mercedes taxis, world-class universities, bars to rival Soho and coffee thicker than mud, political demonstrations, and swimming pools awash with more silicone than Miami. Add people so friendly you’ll swear it can’t be true, a political situation existing on a knife-edge, internationally renowned museums and gallery openings that continue in the face of explosions, assassinations and power cuts, and you’ll find that you’ve never experienced a capital city quite so alive and kicking – despite its frequent volatility.